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National Transport

This page last updated January 8, 2013

Germany is such a compact country that, unless you're going from Munich to Hamburg, taking the train will probably be the more convenient, economical, and (in my opinion) fun mode of transport.  In general, domestic air travel is geared mainly toward business travelers and therefore flying is not generally a popular means of travel within Germany.  However, you will most likely arrive in and depart from Germany by air, and you may need to make a short hop from your initial arrival point (probably Frankfurt) to some other destination, or vice-versa, so here's what you'll need to know.

On this page:

SIDEBAR: Overcoming jet lag


There are 35 or so commercial passenger airports (Flughafen) in Germany, with Frankfurt and Munich being the two biggest.  Altogether, over 190 million passengers were facilitated by German airports in 2008, with 88 million of those in Frankfurt and Munich alone.  Düsseldorf, Berlin-Tegel, Hamburg, and Cologne/Bonn also had over 10 million passengers each, with Stuttgart just under that threshold.  After much debate, a new airport to consolidate Berlin's two remaining airports is being built adjacent to the existing Schönefeld Airport.  However, a number of issues have repeatedly delayed the opening of the new airport and it is now not scheduled to open until sometime 2014.

Munich airport
        (Photo by FMG)

Munich airport
(Photo by FMG)

Airports in Germany are operated by government-franchised private companies.  The major airports feature the typical duty-free shops, restaurants, bars, car rental agencies, conference centers, banks, and post offices.  Frankfurt's airport even boasts such services as a supermarket, clinic, cinema, dentist, kennel, and casino.

Arriving in Germany is fairly simple and straightforward.  If you arrive on an international flight, you will be directed from the arrival gate first to passport control (Passkontrolle).  If you are from the US or other non-European nation, use the "Non-EU National" line.  After having your passport stamped, you will then proceed to baggage claim.  Once you collect your bags, you proceed through the customs area (Zoll).  If you have something to declare, use the lane with the red sign.  Otherwise, proceed through the lane with the green sign where you will alight in the landside area of the terminal.  If you are meeting someone, this is likely where they will be waiting for you.

If you are the one meeting someone who is flying in, remember that the airside section of German airports is highly secure and only ticketed passengers and airport workers are allowed in the gate areas and concourses, so you will have to meet your party in the landside area of the airport.  To do so, check the arrivals board (marked Ankunft) when you get to the airport to determine which arrivals exit your party will be using, then wait near there for them.  If the green lights next to the flight on the arrival board are flashing, it means that the flight has arrived.  Alternatively, you can plan to have your party meet you at an officially designated meeting point (Treffpunkt) found in most airports.

Stuttgart airport
        terminal (Photo by Stuttgart Flughafen GmbH)

Stuttgart airport terminal
(Photo by Stuttgart Flughafen GmbH)

While arriving is pretty easy, flying out of a German airport is much more elaborate.  First, you should plan on arriving at least two hours before your flight. 

When you arrive at the airport for an outbound flight, you will first need to check the flight information displays (marked Abflug) for two pieces of information: the check-in counter (Schalter) numbers and the gate number (Flugsteig) for your flight, as well as the current status of the flight.  If the green lights next to your flight are flashing, it usually means that they have started boarding the flight.

In Germany, ticketing and check-in counters are numbered.  The numbers are usually located above the counter.  You must use one of the counters noted on the flight information display for your flight.  Usually, several counters handle check-in for all flights for an airline, but sometimes specific flights must check-in at a specific counter.

Security is very tight, especially for international flights, and you will have to go through several layers of security checking.  Be prepared to play "20 questions" with several airline and airport security personnel.  You will be asked repeatedly about your luggage and travel plans.  Unfortunately, sometimes the questioning takes on the rather rude tone of an interrogation, but just answer their questions accurately and you'll be on your way.  Don't worry if you don't speak German-- you will be questioned in English.

Once you find your counter, you will begin the security screening and check-in process.  Sometimes there will be someone at the head of the line who asks you all the relevant security questions. You will then proceed to the ticketing and baggage check-in.  From there, proceed toward the designated concourse or entry area for your gate.  You will then encounter the first hurdle: the main security checkpoint (Sicherheitskontrolle).  Only ticketed passengers are allowed past the security checkpoint, so you will be asked to show your boarding pass.  Then, go through the metal detector and baggage x-ray area.  If you are on an international flight, you will then be required to show your passport to an immigration officer.  From here, you can now proceed to your gate.  In Germany, only passengers on the next flight leaving from a gate are typically allowed into the gate waiting area (Warteraum).  In some circumstances, once you are in the gate waiting area, you cannot leave; be sure to take care of any last-minute shopping or "bio" needs (you know what I mean) before you enter the waiting area.  Upon entering the waiting area, you will be asked for your boarding pass and might have to go through one more security screening.  From the waiting area, you will either board the plane directly or board a bus that will transport you to the plane located further out on the tarmac (German airports use bus gates much more than most other countries.)

Ground transportationGround transportation
Besides rental cars, there are usually a plethora of public transportation options to get from the airport to the central city or beyond.  Listed below are the major German commercial passenger airports with connection information to the central railway station (Hauptbahnhof, "Hbf"), city center, or other important destinations as indicated.  The major international airports are highlighted.  Because you will most likely encounter Frankfurt's airport in your travels to Germany, I have included a special write-up on it below the other listings.  Be sure to see my pages about renting a car, urban public transport, taxis, and rail transport for further details of using those transportation options.

All information was correct as of January 2010 and is subject to change without notice.  Check the websites of the individual airports (links at the bottom of this page) for up-to-date information. 

City/Airport Location/
Approx Travel Time
Transport options
Tegel/Otto Lilienthal
8 km NW
20 min.
Bus service Bus 109 and X9 every 5-10 min. to Bahnhof Zoo, or transfer to U7 at Jakob-Kaiser-Platz for other city locations
Bus service Bus 128 to Kurt-Schumacher-Platz every 10 min., then U6 to central Berlin
Bus service JetExpressBus TXL to various city locations every 10-20 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €20
20 km SE
1 hour
Rail service Covered walkway or Bus 162 or 171 to airport station, then S-Bahn S9 or AirportExpress (RE7/RB14) to Hbf and other central Berlin stations every 20-30 min.
Rail service Mainline services from airport station
Taxi service 24-hour service to Berlin, approx. €40
3 km S
20 min.
Rail service Tram 6 to Hbf every 10 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €10
9 km NE
20 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S2 to Hbf every 30 min
Rail service Bus 77 to Infineon Nord station every 20 min., then Tram 7 to Hbf
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €18
8 km N
20 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S11 to Hbf every 20-30 min. from station under terminal
Rail service Mainline services from airport station (reached via SkyTrain)
Taxi service 24-hour service to Düsseldorf (approx. €20), Essen (approx. €48), Duisburg (approx. €43), and other area towns
See special section below
9 km N
25 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S1 to Hbf every 10 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €20 (agree on price in advance)
11 km N
20 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S5 to Hannover Hbf every 30 min.
Bus service Bus 470 to Langenhagen every hour
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €20
Konrad Adenauer
14 km SE of Cologne
25 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S13 to Köln Hbf every 15 min.
Rail service Mainline services from airport station
Bus service Bus SB 60 "Airport Express" to Bonn Hbf every 30 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service to Köln (approx. €25), Bonn (approx. €40) and other area towns
12 km NW of Leipzig
30 min.
Rail service "FlughafenExpress" to Leipzig Hbf and Halle Hbf every 30 min.
Rail service Mainline services from airport station
Taxi service 24-hour service to Leipzig and Halle, approx. €35
Franz Joseph Strauss
28 km NE
45 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S1 or S8 to Hbf every 20 min.
Bus service Lufthansa AirportBus to Hbf every 20 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €50
7 km N
15 min.
Rail service U-Bahn U2 to Nürnberg Hbf every 15 min.
Bus service Bus 32 to Thon every 40 min., then Bus 30 to Erlangen
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €20
16 km E
20 min.
Bus service Bus R10 to Hbf every hour
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €20
14 km S
30 min.
Rail service S-Bahn S2 or S3 to Hbf every 15 min.
Taxi service 24-hour service, approx. €30

Frankfurt International (Rhein-Main) Airport

        airport terminals (Photo by Fraport AG)

Frankfurt airport terminals
(Photo by Fraport AG)

Serving over 53 million passengers in 2010, Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport (FRA), also known as Frankfurt International Airport, is not only Germany's busiest airport, but also the third busiest airport in Europe (behind London's Heathrow and Paris' CDG) and one of the ten busiest airports in the world.  In addition to being the world hub for Lufthansa, Rhein-Main is served by 113 other airlines with about 700 daily departures to about 300 destinations in 110 countries-- the most international destinations of any airport.  Transfers account for over half of the passenger count, making FRA one of the world's most important international air hubs.

Given these superlatives, it should be no surprise that the gargantuan facility is currently operating at capacity.  A new runway that opened in 2011 and an expansion of concourse A scheduled to be completed in mid 2012 should help alleviate the current congestion and provide room for the airport's continued growth.  Planning is also underway for a future third terminal to be located on the southern side of the airport on the former US Air Force base.  These expansion projects should increase capacity 50%.  Additionally, FRA was the first commercial airport in the world to be certified for the monster Airbus A380 superjumbo jet and the aforementioned concourse A expansion as well as the recently-upgraded concourse C/D both have gates designed to facilitate the A380.

Beware that there is a second "Frankfurt" airport, the much smaller Frankfurt-Hahn, which is used exclusively by discount airlines.  Calling it Frankfurt-Hahn is a cruel trick, however, as it is laughably located 70 miles west of Frankfurt and is actually closer to Luxembourg than to downtown Frankfurt.

Located 9 kilometers southwest of downtown Frankfurt (about 15 minutes by rail, a little longer by car), the airport is a monolith comprised of two terminals and a small city of support facilities.  Terminal 1, which opened in 1972 and got a much-needed expansion in the late '90s, is the larger of the two with over 100 gates crammed into three multi-level concourses (piers) labeled A/Z, B, and C.  There are five levels: Level 0 is the underground regional rail station and shopping arcade; Level 1 is the arrivals/baggage claim level; Level 2 is the check-in and main departures level; Level 3 is an additional international departures gate level in concourse A (as of late 2011, gates there are now designated as "Z" instead of "A") and the arrivals immigration area in concourse B; and Level 4 is the level for the inter-terminal Sky Line train stations.  The shiny new Terminal 2, which opened in 1994, has 40 or so gates in two concourses labeled D and E on three levels: Level 2 is the arrivals, check-in, and European departures level; Level 3 is the international departures gate level, and Level 4 is the Sky Line train station.

There are a number of options to get between the terminals.  The fastest method is the Sky Line train, which whisks you between the terminals in about 2 minutes.  There is also a shuttle bus which takes about 5 minutes; catch it in front of the terminals.  Of course, you can also walk.  There are a number of seemingly secret passages that will get you between the concourses, including a tunnel between concourses A/Z and B.  However, the former walkway between concourses C and D has been closed.  Therefore, if you arrive at the end of concourse C and need to get to Terminal 2 (or vice-versa), you now have a long trek.

        airport gate area

Gate waiting area at Frankfurt Airport

Gates, arrival areas and check-in counters carry the concourse letter followed by the number (i.e. Gate C5, Counter A202, etc.)  The letter is usually dropped from the numbers on signs at the check-in counters, but not at the gates.  When looking for your gate, follow the signs for the lettered concourse first, then look for signs for the gate number once you reach that concourse.  On some signs (but not all), the concourse letters for Terminal 1 are in orange while those in Terminal 2 are in light blue.

As previously mentioned, the non-European international gates on the upper level of concourse A were relabeled as "Z" in late 2011.  This was done ostensibly to create logical numbering capacity for the concourse A addition that opens in mid 2012.

The terminals are divided into the public landside area and the secure airside area.  To enter the secure area, you must have a valid boarding card and pass through the security screening.  The airside area of the airport is further divided into two control zones: the "Schengen zone" for domestic German and most European flights, and the "transit zone" for international flights.  (The Schengen Agreement allows for travel between most European countries without passport controls.)  To move between these zones, you must go through passport and customs checkpoints.  Unfortunately, having these different zones does confuse things a bit.  Most of level 2 of concourse A, the front half of concourse B, the far end of concourse C, and level 2 of Terminal 2 are in the Schengen zone; the remainder of the airport is in the international transit zone.  For the most part, the airport is arranged so that you only have to pass through the passport or customs controls if you are crossing between zones; if you are connecting from one international flight to another, you should not have to pass through any checkpoints.  However, be aware that there are periodic ad-hoc security checkpoints within the secure zone, and flights to some countries (including the US) may require an additional security screening even if you are just connecting.  And if you take a wrong turn, you may end-up going through an unexpected and unnecessary passport or security screening.

        airport overview map

Frankfurt airport overview map
(Full-size map available from Frankfurt Airport's website; see links section below.)

Passenger services
If Tom Hanks' character in the movie The Terminal could choose an airport to be stuck at, this would be a good choice.  This self-contained city has large shopping and eating areas and plenty of additional services.  Indeed, FRA is arguably one of the best airports anywhere in this regards-- it's practically a shopping mall that happens to have an airport attached.  There are a multitude of stores (over 100 of them) carrying books, perfume, jewelry, clothes, leather goods, electronics, toys, souvenirs, liquor, candy, convenience items-- even erotica.  In December, you'll also find a traditional-style German Christmas market on the mezzanine in Terminal 1.  Even more good news for shoppers-- the law requires businesses to maintain typical street prices in their airport outlets. 

If you're hungry or thirsty before or after that long flight, you'll find over 50 restaurants and bars catering to every taste: fast-food (including the ubiquitous McDonald's), traditional German food (including a beer garden), pizza and pasta, ice cream, sandwiches, sushi and even hoity-toity French fare.  There are also several bakeries and even two supermarkets for the do-it-yourself types.

If you have medical needs, there are several pharmacies, a medical clinic, optician and even a dentist.  Other services to be found are hair dressers and barbers, tailors and dry cleaners, conference and business centers with Internet access, and a kennel.  To pass the time, you'll find a visitor's terrace overlooking the airfield in each terminal, the Airport Forum with displays on the history of FRA, several children's play areas, chapels and prayer rooms, art galleries, and even a casino.  And, of course, you'll find banks and currency exchanges, post offices, insurance agents, and car rental and travel agencies.  Elsewhere on the airport grounds are a couple of hotels, gas stations, and train stations.  One service that may be particularly useful to passengers after a long flight are the shower facilities located in each terminal.  For €6 or $6, you get a clean, private shower stall with soap and towels.  There are three of these facilities: two in Terminal 1, concourse B (one inside the transit area on level 2 adjacent to the WCs behind the waiting area next to the casino, and one in the landside shopping area, departures level, in the WCs nearest the information desk), and one in Terminal 2, concourse D (level 3 near the security checkpoint.) 

        airport showers

Public showers at Frankfurt Airport

Tired of lugging all that luggage around?  There are lots of free baggage carts and, fortunately, however in most cases they can no longer be taken on the escalators or moving walkways nor on the Sky Line.  For long layovers, there are lockers and a baggage storage office in each terminal.

Throughout the airport, you'll now find electronic kiosks with airport information.  If they're on the fritz, or you'd just rather talk to a human, there are several staffed information centers in each terminal.

Looking for a place to relax or snooze between flights?  There are several lounges scattered around.  One of the best is in concourse B, level 3 in the connecting hallway to concourse C.  Of course, if you have a bag with you, be sure you secure it to your person in some way before you doze-off.

        airport lounge

Lounge at Frankfurt Airport

All that said, the airport does have some pitfalls.  One of the more common complaints I've heard are about small and sometimes not-so-clean WCs, although in my experiences I've never actually witnessed this.  Also, many of the shops and services are located in the big shopping arcade in the landside area of the Terminal 1, so transit passengers have to clear passport control to use them, then go back through security and passport control to catch their connecting flight. 

While most of the terminal areas have now been designated as non-smoking, the smoke from the areas where smoking is allowed (and there are a lot of them) does tend to waft considerably further afield. 

Being such a large and complex airport, distances can be long-- really long in some cases-- especially if you have to change terminals or concourses.  If your gate is at the end of the A or C concourse, or if you use the long-distance rail station (or heaven forbid any combination of the above), get ready for a long hike, even with the moving walkways. 

Signage is fairly good and is in both German and English along with spiffy international pictograms.  But because there are so many possible places to go and ways to get there, you have to keep a sharp eye out and know what you're looking for or you may miss that sign. 

        airport signs

Signage at Frankfurt Airport

As in most places, the competence and disposition of the staff can vary widely, but most of the time you'll find helpful and informative workers (if not overly friendly) who speak English.  If you encounter someone unusually surly or obviously lacking the information you need, just go find someone else.  Keep in mind that German service workers inherently dispense with pleasantries-- Germans typically regard overt cheerfulness as fake or feigned.  The biggest complaints about rudeness seem to be about the security personnel, so just be cooperative and impassive and you'll be on your way.

Because of terminal capacity issues, most short and medium haul flights use remote parking spots away from the terminal and passengers are bused between the plane and terminal.  In fact, about half of the airport's gates are so called "stand" gates.

Given the age and extent of the facilities, there are always renovations going on somewhere in the terminals.  It seems like they just keep rotating the construction work through each of the concourses every few years.  Even with the constant work, a few areas of the airport are still rather dated and depressingly dingy, although that's gotten better in recent years.  And more than once I've been in areas where the heating system has been working too well.

One of the quirks about this airport is that there seem to be passageways, gates, and facilities tucked into nooks and crannies everywhere, so much so that the airport really can start feeling like a labyrinth.  Many gates require you to go up or down a dedicated escalator or staircase, the entrances to the tunnel between concourses A and B are surprisingly inconspicuous, and some restrooms entrances look more like closets.  All the more reason to carefully watch for and follow the signs.

Finally, if for some reason you have an aversion to shiny stainless steel, stay out of this airport-- it's everywhere.

        airport concourse A

Unusually quiet concourse A at Frankfurt Airport

When you arrive, you will be discharged into appropriate control zone (transit or Schengen).  For transit passengers, see the "Connecting flights" section below.  For those arriving in the Schengen zone, you simply claim your bags (if any) and leave the airport.  Passengers arriving in the transit zone will first have to pass through the passport control area where you simply present your passport for inspection and the obligatory stamp (which the Germans of course take to a whole other level.)  Note that there are different lanes for EU and non-EU nationals, so be sure you get in the right line.  Depending on when you arrive, there might be a considerable wait to get through passport control.  If you don't have any bags to claim, you might be better served in those cases using one of the passport checkpoints located in another concourse.

In some concourses, after clearing passport control, you then must pass through a customs checkpoint for your carry-on bags.  If you have nothing to declare or are coming from another EU country, this is generally a non-event-- just proceed through the "green" line and you won't even have to say anything to the inspector.  (Don't ask me why the sign for green line is actually shaped like a stop-sign.)  From here, you can either head for the ground transportation or proceed to baggage claim.  From the baggage claim area, you must proceed through a customs checkpoint with the same procedures described above.  After clearing customs, you will unceremoniously emerge in the main landside zone of the terminal.  If you are meeting someone, they should be waiting here.  Otherwise, follow the signs to head to public transport (see below), taxis, or the car rental desks.

Ground transportationGround transportation options
There are numerous local, regional, domestic and international rail connections to and from the airport's two (yes, two) railway stations.  From the regional station (Regionalbahnhof) beneath Terminal 1, S-Bahn S8 or S9 goes to downtown Frankfurt in less than 15 minutes, as well as to Mainz and Wiesbaden.  The sparkling long-distance rail station (Fernbahnhof), connected to Terminal 1 by an agonizingly long skybridge over the adjacent Autobahn, serves mainline GermanRail trains to many domestic and international destinations.  If you arrive at Terminal 1, follow the signs to the appropriate station.  If you arrive at Terminal 2, take the direct shuttle bus to the stations or take the Sky Line train to Terminal 1 and follow the signs from there.  GermanRail has two ticketing and information centers (Reisezentrum), one at the long-distance station and the other just above the regional station in the underground shopping area (Level 0) near the center of concourse B.

In additional to rail service, there is also regional bus service to several area towns including Darmstadt and Rüsselsheim.  There is also direct bus service to Strasbourg, Mannheim, Heidelberg, and Talheim.  Most buses leave from the bus station at Terminal 1.  From Terminal 2, take the Sky Line train to Terminal 1 and go down to the arrivals level.  From Terminal 1, the bus station is located directly outside of the terminal.

All of the major rental car agencies have counters in both terminals.  Taxis can also be hired from either terminal.  There is 24-hour taxi service to Frankfurt, Wiesbaden and Mainz.  A taxi ride to downtown Frankfurt will take 20-40 minutes depending on traffic and should cost about €20.

        airport T1 Departure Hall (Photo by Fraport AG)

Frankfurt airport Terminal 1 Departure Hall
(Photo by Fraport AG)

You should plan on arriving at least two hours before your scheduled departure.  If you arrive by car or train, follow the signs for departing flights.  If you must return your rental car, follow the signs for rental car returns.  If you arrive by rail at the long-distance station, check to see if your airline has a counter there.  If so, you can check-in there and then proceed directly to security and on to your departure gate.  Otherwise, once in the terminal, check the large flight display boards for information on the check-in counter and gate for your flight.  Then proceed to the appropriate counter to get a boarding pass and check any bags.  From there, you will be directed to the security checkpoint for your departure hall.  Proceed through the security and passport checkpoints and then follow the signs to your gate.  Be aware that passengers headed for the US, UK, and Middle East face more intense screening nowadays, so be prepared to put-up with a bit more hassle than you may otherwise be expecting.

Connecting flightsConnecting flights
If you are passing through Frankfurt to and from non-Schengen countries, your transfer will take place entirely within the transit zone and you should not have to go through customs or passport control.  If your connecting flight leaves from a different concourse than the one you arrive in, the Sky Line train will allow you to make the transfer while remaining in the transit zone.

Transfers between non-Schengen and Schengen countries (including Germany) will require you to go through passport control.  If you are connecting to another flight in Terminal 1 with a short connection time (less than 45 minutes), you should be able to use the new "Fast Lane" service located at the passport checkpoint in concourse B.  Eligible flights are shown on a display above the "Fast Lane" counter.

After clearing passport control, you can then proceed to the gate for your connecting flight-- check the flight information displays for the gate number and follow the signs.  If your connecting flight is in the other terminal, use the Sky Line train.  A tunnel allows you to transfer within the Schengen zones of concourses A and B so that you do not need to leave the secure area.  There is also a passageway inside the secure zone from concourse B to concourse C.

If you need a boarding pass or additional assistance, check-in at your airline's transfer counter first thing after arriving.

Lufthansa advertises a guaranteed connection time of 45 minutes at FRA; an hour is probably more realistic if you're staying within the transit or Schengen zones, and 75 minutes if you have to cross between them.  Flights from North America to FRA often arrive early, but don't count on it as any time savings gained from that strong tailwind are frequently lost due to congestion in Frankfurt's approach and landing slots.

If you have a long layover (more than a couple of hours), you might consider visiting the spectator's terrace on top of each terminal where for €3 you can watch the airfield activity, or the free art galleries in each terminal.  Note that these may require leaving the airside of the airport.  Long layovers are also conducive to taking a quick sightseeing trip into Frankfurt-- the S-Bahn will get you downtown in less than 15 minutes.  (See information under "Arriving" above.)

For more information about Frankfurt Airport, see their official website:



The major domestic airline in Germany is Lufthansa.  It connects all of the major airports with at least four flights daily.  Most domestic trips are an hour or less in duration.  Lufthansa also has a high-speed rail line, the Lufthansa Airport Express, which provides links from Frankfurt and Düsseldorf airports to Stuttgart, Bonn, Cologne, and Dortmund.  Germany, and Europe in general, have been invaded by a number of discount carriers in recent years, including Condor, LTU, Hapag-Lloyd, Aero-Lloyd, Eurowings, and Deutsche BA, a subsidiary of British Air.  German airlines transport 50 million passengers a year.  About 90 other international airlines have regularly scheduled flights to Germany, including all of the major US carriers.  From Germany, connections are available to over 300 destinations in 90 countries worldwide.

        jet (Photo by Lufthansa)

Lufthansa jet
(Photo by Lufthansa)

Other sites of interest

Berlin (all)
Frankfurt (Rhein-Main)

This page and all its contents are Copyright 2010 by Brian Purcell

The information provided on this website is provided on an "as-is" basis without warranties of any kind either express or implied.  The author and his agents make no warranties or representations of any kind concerning any information contained in this website.  This website is provided only as general information.  The author expressly disclaims all liability with respect to actions taken or not taken based upon the information contained herein or with respect to any errors or omissions in such information.  All opinions expressed are strictly those of the author.  This site is not affiliated in any way with any official agency.