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[!] Warning A nationwide €9 monthly pass for local and regional public transportation is now available. More details on the urban public transport page

Local Transport
Urban Public Transport

This page last updated July 8, 2022

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German cities have remarkable public transportation systems, especially when compared with American cities of equal size, and they operate with all the efficiency you'd expect from our Teutonic friends. Just about every town of substantial size has at minimum a decent bus system. Transport mode options increase considerably as the place you're in gets bigger. Public transportation is so good, you should never need or want a car to get around most cities. Overall, Germany probably has more urban public transportation systems, especially rail systems, than just about any other country in the world. In a book about urban rail systems, the authors wrote that "Germans know how to do mass transit properly", and I would wholeheartedly agree.


On this page:


Types of service

Bus logo Bus
Bus/Omnibus
Nearly every town and many rural areas have scheduled local bus service. In larger towns and cities, lines crisscross the city. Where local rail service is offered, buses compliment those services. In the biggest cities, there may be several different bus systems in operation. In Berlin, you'll even find double-decker buses. Service intervals vary widely depending on the location and time. Many large cities also offer night bus service. In some places, especially smaller towns, bus service is operated by GermanRail (Bahnbus).

Bus stops throughout Germany are marked with this sign: Bus or streetcar stop

Bus plaza in Frankfurt

Bus plaza at suburban Frankfurt rail station
 

Tram logo Streetcar/Tram
Straßenbahn/Trambahn
Most medium and large cities have a streetcar (tram) system, sometimes fairly extensive. In some areas, streetcar lines run underground in the central city area. Trams are especially prevalent in many eastern German cities. Most systems have been modernized with sleek new rolling stock, and many systems now carry the Trambahn moniker. Service is fairly frequent, usually 20-30 minutes during off-peak periods.

Streetcar stops throughout Germany are also marked with this sign: Bus or streetcar stop

Streetcar in Heidelberg

Heidelberg streetcar
 

Stadtbahn logo Light rail
St
adtbahn
Some cities, most notably Stuttgart, Hannover, Cologne, and Dusseldorf upgraded their streetcar systems to modern light rail systems known as a Stadtbahn. Generally, these systems function very much like an U-Bahn system (subway, see below) with wide-gauge tracks, longer trains, and level boarding. However, while the Stadtbahn usually runs in extensive tunnel networks within the central city areas, it runs mostly overground outside of the central city. When running overground, the Stadtbahn runs almost entirely in exclusive rights-of-way, making them faster than streetcars. These systems generally serve the central city and the immediate vicinity. Service is frequent, usually 10-20 minutes during off-peak periods. 

Most Stadtbahn systems mark their stations with the standard "U" U-Bahn sign with the word "Stadtbahn" added below or across the "U", and Stadtbahn lines are typically numbered with a "U" followed by a number (e.g. U2). 

Other Stadtbahns
There are other uses of the word "Stadtbahn" in Germany that don't describe a light rail system. In Karlsruhe and Heilbronn, the "Stadtbahn" is a hyrbid streetcar/S-Bahn system (more in the "Other local public transport options" below), and the main east-west elevated rail corridor in Berlin is known as the "Stadtbahn".

Stuttgart Stadtbahn

Stuttgart Stadtbahn
 

U-bahn logo Subway/Underground
U-
Bahn (Untergrundbahn)
A few of Germany's largest cities have a full-fledged subway system, or U-Bahn. For the most part, these systems are located underground, but may run on elevated tracks or at ground level, especially in outlying areas. These systems generally serve the central city and the immediate vicinity. Service is frequent, usually 5-15 minutes during off-peak periods. 

U-Bahn stations in all German cities are marked with the standard "U" sign shown at the left above and lines are numbered with a "U" followed by a number (e.g. U2)..

Munich U-Bahn

Munich U-Bahn
 

S-bahn logo Suburban commuter rail
S-
Bahn (Schnellbahn)
The largest metropolitan areas have a brilliant suburban train system called the S-Bahn. These are rapid transit trains that run from the central city deep into the suburbs. S-Bahn routes primarily run above ground except in the central city where they frequently are underground. In Berlin, most S-Bahn lines are elevated through the city with the exception of the north-south corridor, which runs underground through central Berlin. Service is fairly frequent, usually 20-30 minutes during off-peak periods.

Besides providing suburban service, the S-Bahn also makes several stops in the central city area as well. These stops are generally further apart than those on the U-Bahn or Stadtbahn and therefore makes the S-Bahn a faster option for longer central city journeys. Unlike the other systems above, which are operated by local governments or franchises, most S-Bahn systems are operated by the Deutsche Bahn. As a result, you can use DB tickets on them (see special note under Tickets below.) 

S-Bahn stations in all cities in Germany are marked with the standard "S" sign shown to the left above. S-Bahn lines are numbered with an "S" followed by a number (e.g. S2).

Berlin S-Bahn

Berlin S-Bahn
 


S and U bahn signs in MunichOther local public transport options
Other modes of urban public transport you may come across include:

  • Zahnradbahn: Cog railway/funicular
  • Seilbahn: Cable railway or cable-car
  • Schwebebahn: Suspension railway; ride the famous one in Wuppertal if you get a chance-- it's over 100 years old!
  • H-Bahn/Hochbahn: Elevated train
  • R-Bahn: Regional train; typically a longer-distance commuter rail service to outlying areas around major cities.
  • Fähre: Ferry; integrated into the public transportation systems in several cities including Hamburg and Berlin.

Some cities--most notably Karlsruhe-- have built hybrid systems that combine streetcar systems with an S-Bahn. These systems run as regular streetcars in the central city, but then transition onto the mainline rail network to connect to outlying towns.

Note that the service times indicated above are for weekdays. Service on weekends may be substantially reduced, especially on Sundays and holidays. Schedules are usually posted at stops and stations and are available online (see the links section at the bottom of this page.)

Most transit systems use the central rail station (Hauptbahnhof) as a major hub. This makes it easy to get from the station to your hotel and vice versa.

S-Bahn?
Some foreign visitors confuse or interchange S-Bahn and U-Bahn. However, there are significant differences between the two (see each service's description above.) Here's an easy way for English speakers to keep two these straight:

  • U = Underground
  • S = Suburban

Also, many foreigners confuse or interchange S-Bahn with Straßenbahn or Stadtbahn. Again, all of these are quite different!

Maps
The transit maps for the largest cities are quite complex, oftentimes resembling some kind of electrical wiring diagram. But once you study them for a few minutes, they're usually pretty easy to understand. Most cities use color-coded schematic plans to make the system easier to decipher.

Maps can be obtained for free from tourist offices and are usually included in guidebooks, and you can also download a copy from the respective transit agency's websites (see links section at the bottom of this page.) You'll find them posted at most bus and streetcar stops and rail stations. Street maps of the surrounding neighborhood are also usually posted in rail stations making it easy to find your way from the station to your destination.

Berlin rail system map

Berlin rail system map


Tickets and fares

S-bahn logo The "9 Euro Ticket"
For the months of June, July, and August of 2022, the German government is making available a ticket costing only €9 that allows unlimited use of all local and regional public transport nationwide for each of those calendar months. Here is a summary of how this ticket works:
  • This ticket is available from the Deutsche Bahn as well as from most local transport agencies and can be purchased from ticket machines, mobile ticket apps, or at customer service centers.
  • A single ticket purchased anywhere is good nationwide (e.g. a €9 ticket purchased in Berlin is also valid for use in Munich.)
  • Tickets are non-transferable-- the rider's name must be written on the ticket for it to be valid.
  • Lost tickets cannot be refunded or replaced.
  • A separate ticket must be purchased for each month and is only valid until the end of that respective month (e.g. a ticket purchased on 1 July or on 29 July will expire on 31 July.)
  • Children age 6 and older must have their own ticket.
  • Bicycles and dogs are not included and are subject to separate fares as applicable.
  • Travel with a €9 ticket is only valid on local public transport (Bus, Straßenbahn, U-Bahn/Stadtbahn, and S-Bahn) as well as the DB's regional services (RB and RE trains.) Travel on ICE, EC, and IC trains is not included, nor is travel on non-DB trains such as FlixTrain.
  • The €9 ticket is only valid in 2nd class.
  • A few international routes are included; be sure to inquire regarding specific routes to determine if they're included.
  • Users of the €9 ticket do not need to be residents of Germany (i.e. tourists can purchase and use these tickets.)
  • More details are available here: https://www.bahn.com/en/offers/regional/9-euro-ticket-en

In each city or metropolitan area, all of the transit networks operate under a single regional transport cooperative (Verkehrsverbund) with coordinated fares and tickets. A single ticket (Ticket, Fahrkarte, Fahrschein, or Fahrausweis) is good for all modes of transport and is valid for transfers to other trains or buses needed to complete your journey. The specific rules vary depending on the city, but most systems allow you one complete trip in one continuous direction along the most direct route to your destination for a set length of time, usually two hours or so, including any transfers and interruptions.

Fares on German transport networks are based on a zone system. The transport regions are divided into tariff zones (Tarifzonen) and you pay based on the number of zones you cross. Oftentimes, there is a central cluster of zones (Innenraum) covering the inner city. Typically, tickets for journeys starting and ending in this cluster have the same price, even if it crosses a tariff zone.

Fares generally range from €1-4 for shorter trips and higher for longer distances.

For buses, you can purchase your ticket from the driver. Simply state your final destination and he or she will tell you how much the fare is. Pay them and they will give you your ticket. In most German cities, the driver can make change, but it's probably a good idea to have enough change on-hand to pay the exact fare. If there is a ticket machine at the bus stop, you should purchase your ticket from the machine rather than the driver (see below.) In some places, there are ticket machines on-board buses and trams; you'll need to purchase your ticket from one of these machines immediately after boarding.

Ticket machineValidating machine

Ticket machine in Munich (left) and Entwerter in Berlin right)

Ticket machines
For rail systems, you will need to purchase your ticket before you board. Tickets are available from automated ticket machines (labeled Tickets, Fahrkarten, Fahrscheine, or Fahrausweise) located in the station. The exact operation of these machines varies from city to city, but they all function basically the same these days with touch-screens that step you through the process in a number of different languages. Most now accept credit or debit cards in addition to good ole' cash.

Depending on the city, once you purchase your ticket, you may then be required to validate it just before you use it-- look for the words "Entwerten" or "Entwerter" and an arrow on the ticket (see example below). If your ticket requires validation, find a small machine with a slot on the front, usually marked Entwerter (see photo above). You'll typically find these located at the entrances to subway and rail stations and/or on the platform, and aboard buses and trams. Insert your ticket in the slot as indicated by the arrows. The date, time, and location will be stamped on the face of the ticket.

Berlin subway ticket

Most cities also have special multi-tickets (Mehrfahrtenkarte or Streifenkarte). You purchase one ticket that is valid for several uses (usually 3-10), often at a slightly reduced price from the corresponding total of individual fares. The ticket has several numbered sections that correspond to each use. To use the ticket, you need to validate it before or as you begin each journey by inserting the next sequentially numbered section into the validating machine. Once validated, it works like an individual ticket with regards to use. On most systems, you can use a single multi-ticket for several people traveling together-- just validate one section of the ticket for each person (i.e. if you want to use it for two people, validate two sections of the ticket.)

There are also day passes (Tageskarte) good for all modes of transit for an entire day. Some systems also sell a group day ticket which allows several people to use one day ticket, or passes that also include admission to museums and attractions.

Finally, many cities have special tickets for short-distance journeys (up to three or four stops); these tickets (Kurzstreckekarte) cost considerably less than a full zone ticket.

In some cases, children under a certain age ride free with a paying adult. Note that most systems will allow you take your dog or bike on board trains and buses, but you may have to buy a ticket for them, most likely the children's fare or equivalent. Also note that bicycles may be restricted to certain cars and/or may not be allowed during rush hours.

Once you have your ticket (and validated it if required), you may board the train or bus. Keep your ticket with you for the duration of your journey. German transit operates on the honor system, so you won't find fare gates or barriers to enter the station. However, to keep honest people honest, undercover ticket inspectors (Fahrkartenkontrolleur) will periodically walk-through the trains checking tickets.  When they approach (asking "Fahrkarten/ Fahrausweise, bitte"), hand them your ticket. Those without tickets are publicly humiliated, a torture which only ends by coughing-up the fine, usually €60 or so collected on the spot. Keep in mind that they've heard all the excuses (and being a foreigner is no excuse), so it's in your best interest to just pay up and get on with your life.

A special note for the S-Bahn
In areas where the Deutsche Bahn operates the S-Bahn system (which is most places), DB passes are valid on S-Bahn trains. Your pass must be in effect for the day you want to use the S-Bahn (meaning that you must be using a travel day on flexipasses.) If you have a valid pass and use the S-Bahn in conjunction with other modes of public transportation for a journey, you will need to purchase a separate ticket for the segment of your trip that is not via S-Bahn. For instance, if your trip from Point A to Point C includes an S-Bahn from A to B and a U-Bahn from B to C, then you will need to purchase a ticket for the B to C segment, and you will need to purchase and/or validate this ticket when you reach Point B. Remember, DB passes are only valid on the S-Bahn, NOT on the U-Bahn, Stadtbahn, or trams. Here's an additional tip: if you have a flexipass and did not or will not be riding a long-distance mainline train on a given day, don't waste a flexipass day on S-Bahn travel-- you can get a day ticket or individual journey tickets much cheaper.

Some DB point-to-point tickets include a "City-Ticket", which allows you to use local public transportation (all forms, including U-Bahn, streetcars, and buses) to get to the DB station to start your train trip and/or from the station to reach your final destination. Check the details of the ticket or ask at a DB office.


Safety

Public transit in Germany is remarkably safe, even at night, but it's always wise to be aware of your surroundings. The main threat is pickpocketing, especially during peak periods and in the busier stations. Therefore, take extra precautions to safeguard any valuables that you may be carrying. At night, you should avoid riding in empty cars and preferably ride in the car nearest the driver.

Emergency telephones (Notrufsäule) are located in every station and on board most trains, and police make frequent patrols, especially in areas where an increase in crime is noted.

Several cities also have have combined call boxes at stations or on board trains that, in addition to reporting emergencies, also allow you to get information or even arrange for a taxi to get you from the station to your final destination.

Emergency/information phoneCombined emergency/information call box
post in Berlin subway station

Other sites of interest

UrbanRail.net (by Robert Schwandl)
http://www.urbanrail.net/index.htm
 
Railfaneurope.net
http://www.railfaneurope.net/
Metro Bits (by Mike Rohde)
http://mic-ro.com/metro/

REGIONAL TRANSIT AGENCIES
Berlin
http://www.bvg.de/
Cologne
http://www.vrsinfo.de/
Dresden
http://www.nahverkehr.sachsen.de
Frankfurt (Rhein-Main)
http://www.rmv.de
Hamburg
http://www.hvv.de/
Hannover
http://www.uestra.de/
Leipzig/Halle
http://www.lvb.de/
Mannheim
http://www.vrn.de/
Munich
http://www.mvv-muenchen.de/
Nuremberg
http://www.vgn.de
Rhein-Ruhr Region (Dusseldorf-Essen)
http://www.vrr.de/
Stuttgart
http://www.vvs.de/


This page and all its contents are Copyright © 2022 by Brian Purcell

NOTICE
The information provided on this website is provided on an "as-is" basis without warranties of any kind either express or implied.  The author and his agents make no warranties or representations of any kind concerning any information contained in this website.  This website is provided only as general information.  The author expressly disclaims all liability with respect to actions taken or not taken based upon the information contained herein or with respect to any errors or omissions in such information.  All opinions expressed are strictly those of the author.  This site is not affiliated in any way with any official agency.